the speaker of the house of representatives is next in the line of presidential succession. however, this would require that both offices , president and vice president, be simultaneously vacant. this is much less likely following the enactment of the 25th amendment, which provides for a replacement vice president whenever the position is vacated.
according the current presidential succession act (3 usc ã‚â§ 19), the order of succession if both the president and vice president die, are removed from office, and/or are unable to perform the duties of president is:
speaker of the house
president pro tempore of the senate
secretary of state
secretary of the treasury
secretary of defense
secretary of the interior
secretary of agriculture
secretary of commerce
secretary of labor
secretary of health and human services
secretary of housing and urban development
secretary of transportation
secretary of energy
secretary of education
secretary of veterans affairs
secretary of homeland security
(the cabinet members are ordered in the line of succession according to the date their offices were established.)
note that a president is required to be born a citizen, to be at least 35 and to have lived in the us for 14 years. if the next in line does not meet these requirements, he or she will be passed over on the list.
note also that line of succession applies only to the office of the presidency. once one of those in the succession becomes president; that person appoints a new vice-president with the advice and consent of the senate.
prior to the ratification of the 25th amendment in 1967, there was no provision for filling a vacancy in the vice presidency. when a president died in office, the vice president succeeded him, and the vice presidency then remained vacant.
if the president died or left office when there was no vice-president, the president pro tempore of the senate would have become president, and next the speaker of the house. the speaker assumed the top position in 1947, after the period 1886-1947 when only cabinet officers were in the line of succession.
if both the president and the vice president are unable to serve, then the speaker of the u.s. house of representatives would become president.
boehner, speaker of the house of representatives.
there's a couple factors to take into consideration here. first, what is the scale of growth? second, what is the rate or growth? the answer to the first question will inform what steps need to be taken, and the answer to the second will inform you to how quickly you need to act.
we need more info, what fraction are you asking about? 1/2, 1/4, 2/3, etc
i don't know that we're able to predict accurately so far out, but if the heat death of the universe is what actually will happen, then the universe will have been reduced to absolute zero for billions of years by the time we get to 1 googol.