this section covers topics of genetics such as variation, pedigrees, mendelian genetics and mutations.

408,235 questions

who were the aryans ?

the aryans were historically an ancient people from central asia around the caspian sea, and they had a profound influence on the formation of ancient india and persia/iran- in fact, the iranian name for their own country means "land of the aryans", and goes back over two thousand years. because the real aryans lived in a time before writing was commonplace, we don't know a lot about their early history, except that thousands of years ago a group of them invaded india; later a second group invaded persia (modern iran). the vedas , ancient hindu holy texts, were written in the language of the aryans, which is now commonly called "vedic sanskrit".

however, the problem is that in the late 1800s, certain racist crackpots in france (arthur de gobineau) and england (houston stewart chamberlain) began conflating our limited knowledge of the aryans with darwinian concepts, and mushed in some occult mumbo jumbo. they came up with the kernel of the idea of a "master race"- that certain people from europe were ultimately descended from the aryans, and that these europeans were inherently better than all other people. it's all nonsense based on inaccurate reading of history.

adolf hitler and his nazi stooges latched onto these "theories" and used them as a basis of their ridiculous racist ideology, claiming that germanic peoples (germans, scandinavians, even some french and english) were "aryan" and thus better than other peoples. they also decided that jews and other semitic peoples were inferior and parasitic, so it was ok for "aryans" to enslave or kill them. there's no scientific or historical basis behind any of it, and it's utter nonsense. sadly, a lot of people still believe in it anyway.

what is the rarest blood type ?

the rarest phenotypic blood type is type ab negative found in only 0.7% of people worldwide.

however, taking into account more than the 8 main blood types and including antigen combinations, something like rh-null blood is much rarer. an article in smithsonian magazine tells us that there are nine active donors of that blood type in the world.

what is galactosemia ?

galactosemia is a rare genetic metabolic disorder, in which an individual (usually an infant) lacks the enzyme galt, which breaks down the sugar galactose in the body. since galactose is produced by the breakdown of lactose (in milk) into glucose, this sugar rapidly accumulates in the body, and may result in damage to the kidneys, liver, eyes, and brain.

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how rare is black hair and blue eyes ?

the occurrence of crossing over those two genes is more rare because they are farther apart on the chromosome than dark hair and dark eyes or light hair and light eyes; dark hair and light eyes are about as uncommon as light hair and dark eyes. depending on the area of the world, it can be either very common or very uncommon. in some areas, like ireland, it can be more common because when there are more people with that combination of genes procreating, it is more likely for the child to have dark hair and light eyes.

what are some benefits of dna data banks ?

dna data banks are very useful for biological studies and medical researches. today, gene-editing is one of the most important means of drug discovery. based on dna data banks, experts can find what kind of dna they need. scientists at creative biogene enjoy rich expertise and experience in gene editing and they know most genes. if you are interested, you can visit our website to see what we do with dna.

how do green plants make sugar ?

i think it makes sugar but also i know one of the green plants can help with your body if its not that good.

how many chromosomes do humans have ?

humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes; 46 chromosomes in all, 23 from the father and 23 from the mother.
a normal human being has 23 chromosomes from each parent, giving them 23 pairs or 46 in total. it is called haploid.

what is the gc content of a human genome ?

the average gc-content in human genomes ranges from 35% to 60% across 100-kb fragments, with a mean of 41%. the gc-content of yeast ( saccharomyces cerevisiae ) is 38%, and that of another common model organism, thale cress (arabidopsis thaliana), is 36%.

what does dna stand for ?

first note that dna is an abbreviation and not an acronym since we read it as letters like "d" , "n", "a". so dna is not a sounding word itself. and it stands for "deoxyribonucleic acid".

secondly , the biological definition of dna is:

"it is longest macromolecule and the main part of chromosomes that transfers the genetic characteristics in life form".

how much is the dna test in the philippines ?

it costs between 12 and 15 thousand dollars. for 1 father and 1 child, it costs $15,000, with or without the mother's dna.

what is test tube skin ?

short answer is: it is skin in / and from / a test tube. what else ... would you need: q'n.

how is a test cross set up ?

you take the p1(parental) generation and pair all possible alleles up with the corresponding gene of the parents and put one horizontal and one vertical. then it is treated as if it were a multiplication table

is a carrier homozygous or heterozygous ?

a carrier would have to by heterozygous. carriers don't express the "carried" allele but have it nevertheless. this means it has to have one allele of each. for example, if a trait has alleles a (dominant) and a (recessive), the heterozygous genotype will be aa and will display the dominant phenotype (unless the trait is a special/more complex type of expression like incomplete dominance).

who discovered cell wall and when ?

the term cell was introduced by an english scientist robert hooke in his book micrographia published in london in 1665.

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what is the envelope of a virus made of ?

howdy fellow user!

the envelope of a virus is made of a lipid bilayer derived from the host during the budding stage, basically the exiting stage of a newly made virus particle.

let's do a little rewind.

the virus infects the cell to make many copies of itself by using the transcription and translational machinery available there. the virus proteins are translated first. some of them are envelope proteins that get collected on the surface of the cell in a designated spot so when the virus buds off, it takes the bilayer with the accumulated envelope proteins.

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can an o positive woman and o negative man have a healthy baby ?

yes, the blood type does not affect the baby.

the information provided does not predict any major incompatibilities between the mother and the child during pregnancy. however, the abo and the rh factor are only part of the prenatal care picture. there are many, lesser known, blood groups that could cause hdfn (hemolytic disease of the fetus or newborn).

do vitamins affect those who take them ?

every year we spend £300 million on vitamin supplements. some believe they offer the promise of preventing or even curing some of the world's biggest killers, such as heart disease and cancer. others claim that taking large doses of some vitamins may in certain cases be harmful.

vitamin c, the most popular of them all

nearly 40 years ago, one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century and double nobel prize winner, linus pauling, revolutionised the way people thought about vitamins. he claimed that by taking huge doses of vitamin c you could prevent or even cure the common cold.

he predicted that if everybody followed his advice, the common cold could even be eradicated. many scientists dismissed his theory as quackery, but the public loved it and it helped launch a huge industry. but the latest evidence shows the great man was mistaken. vitamin c can help you once have got a cold, but for most people it does nothing to prevent you from catching one in the first place.

even if large doses of vitamin c do not prevent the common cold, some claim that it can still offer a more profound benefit. it is one of a group of vitamins called anti-oxidants that some believe can prevent illnesses such as cancer, alzheimer's and heart disease.

too much of a good thing?

in 2004, scientists in the united states claimed that people could be missing any of the potential benefits of taking one of the world's most popular anti-oxidant vitamin supplements, vitamin e, because their bodies might not be absorbing it. but our own investigation suggested that the american scientists' conclusion could be mistaken.

while most safety experts believe that vitamins c and e can be taken safely even in quite large doses, there is worrying evidence that one form of another common vitamin, vitamin a, could be linked to osteoporosis, a debilitating bone disease.

if the theory is right it means that a person's diet, or some supplements that they take every day to improve their health, could actually be slowly and silently weakening their bones.

effect of capping agents on nanoparticle synthesis ?

capping agents such as trisodium citrate are used to stop growth of nanoparticles and stabilise them from aggregation. its effects are generally short lived though, it has been reported though that using trisodium citrate with the lee and miesel method can lead to particles that are stable for up to a month.

why is a buffer needed in gel electrophoresis ?

the buffer is the medium through which the current flows. in the electrophoresis chamber, the anode and cathode are separated and the gel is placed between them. in order to close the circuit and generate the voltage which causes the migration, the entire chamber is filled with a conductive buffer. it is actually possible to perform electrophoresis without a buffer; however this requires a specially made electrophoresis chamber. in these chambers the electrodes actually contact the top and bottom of the gel eliminating the need for a conductive buffer to close the circuit.

sds page electrophoresis uses buffer not primarily as a conductor but for holding a desired ph, dissipating heat and providing sds in excess in the case of denaturing gels. a gel would run without a buffer as the gel itself is a conductor but the currents involved would heat it to the point of decomposition. also the volume of liquid in a gel does not allow for an adequate ph buffering system. holding a ph is extremely important for reproducibility especially in native gels as the ph can change the charge on the peptide. it is true some gels do not require buffer but these are rare cases like isoelectric focusing.
the primary application of the buffer would be to conduct electricity,to form a closed circuit

do twins get an extra chromosome from 1 parent ?

no. having an extra chromosome is actually a genetic defect. with twins, let's assume they are identical twins, the mother has one egg cell in the fallopian tube ready to be fertilized by a sperm cell. the sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell, but that egg cell then undergoes mitosis. all of the cell contents are duplicated and the cell divides into two. you now have 2 cells with the exact dna which are twins. in the case of fraternal twins, the mother had two separate ova in her fallopian tubes and both were fertilized by two different sperm cells.

is cleft lip a fatal disorder ?

no, a cleft lip means that your lip has naturally formed as if it had been cut in half. a simple surgery can fix this.