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cards in this guide ( 17 )
selection process for all federal judges

being confirmed by the senate

appellate jurisdiction vs original jurisdiction in federal courts

appellate jurisdiction applies to case that have already been tried by lower courts

how did the 14th amendment affect civil liberties in the united states

it expanded civil liberties by requiring more governments to provide them

what term describes the view that only fundamental bill of rights protections should apply to the states 

selective incorporation

what had benjamin gitlow been convicted for in the supreme court case gitlow  vs new york

publishing a socialist newspaper

which scenario best illustrates a violation of substantive due process

a new law fines book publishers for printing content that is considered unpatriotic 

what was the gideon vs wainwright case in 1963

clarence gideon was accused of breaking into a pool hall in florida . he asked for a lawyer , but florida law at the time only provided for court appointed lawyers in capital / death penalty cases . gideon lost the original case . but won his appeal to the supreme court , where the court ruled that the 6th amendment right to a lawyer applied to felony cases. if the defendant could not afford a lawyer, the state had to provide one .

what was the miranda vs arizona case in 1966

in this landmark decision, the supreme court heard several cases in which suspects signed confessions without being informed that they were not legally required to do so. the court ruled that the fifth amendment guarantee against self-incrimination meant the accused must be warned of the right to remain silent and the right to have a lawyer present during questioning. providing this information is now known as the miranda warning.

what is a / the miranda warning 

phrases that inform accused people about their 5th amendment rights .

what is a public defender

a lawyer provided by the government to represent poor clients

what did the supreme court decide in miranda vs arizona 

people accused of a crime must be informed of their rights

what is the 14th amendment . and what does it do

 the 14th amendment ensures that the federal government can't limit citizens' basic rights without a good reason (such as public safety)

when was the united states civil war . 

the civil war to place in 1861 – 1865

how many years did the united states civil war last .

4 years 

what was the union

the states that remained part of the united states and fought the confederacy during the civil war.

how many slaves were freed after / during the civil war 

nearly 4 million

how did segregation effect  african americans lives 

 it separated the races in public life. african americans could not travel, do business, study, or worship with white americans. when such laws were challenged in court, the states argued that segregation affected everyone equally